It's Scientific Fraud

Vivisection isn’t just barbaric because of the high level of suffering and pain that it inflicts on animals but also because it acts under the false guise of being for the greater good of human health.

To help explain the many scientific issues involved with animal-based research, we wanted to tell to  tell you our top five reasons for being anti-vivisection: 

Our Top Five Reasons for Being Anti-Vivisection!

 

1. Mice, rats and other animals are not accurate models for predicting the human response

Due to the large number of differences between species, including genetic, physiological, metabolic and psychological, animal-based research is as reliable as flipping a coin! In reality, animal models can be used only as analogies for human systems.1
 
Different species often react differently to the same drugs or treatments. Penicillin is a great example. 
 
Penicillin can be:
- Fatal for guinea pigs  and Syrian hamsters 2
- Effective in mice 3
- Metabolised too quickly in rabbits 4
- Teratogenic in rats (causes limb malformations in offspring)5
- Effective in humans 
 
With such a variety of reactions to penicillin in many different species, how do we know which animal model will be predictive for humans? This is one of the many issues in using animals to model human responses. Human-relevant research would provide a much more accurate result.
 
Only 5 in 5,000 compounds that enter preclinical drug safety testing make it to human trials, and only 1 of those 5 may be proven to be safe and effective enough to reach pharmacy shelves.6 This is a success rate of 0.02%.
 
Here are a few examples of research conducted using animals that demonstrate that animals do not reliably predict the human response:
 
Animal Experimentation is Ineffective for Cancer Research: In 1971, the ‘War on Cancer’ was announced in the U.S.A. An overwhelming amount of animal-based cancer research has occurred since but has unfortunately not prevented cancer from continuing to be a major threat to human health.6
 
Animal Experimentation is Ineffective for HIV and AIDS Research: HIV researchers have developed 90 vaccines that protect non-human animals from HIV infection; none of these vaccines are effective in humans. 7 Effective AIDS research has been advanced in the vast majority of cases due to the use of human models.8
 
Animal Experimentation is Ineffective for Stroke Research: Between 1993 and 2003, researchers developed fourteen neuroprotective treatments that were effective in non-human animals. All fourteen were ineffective in human patients.9
 
Animal Experimentation is Ineffective for Spinal Cord Injury Research: In a systematic review of animal-based research conducted to determine the viability of treatments for spinal cord injury, authors found that the highly variable results of the animal studies meant that human responses were impossible to predict. 10 
 
Animal Experimentation is Ineffective for Diabetes Research: Despite a huge amount of literature published about type 2 diabetes (over 50 articles on rodent experimentation per month for the last 30 years) there are few treatments available for humans, and none of these prolong life expectancy for patients 11. NOTE: In 2014, an estimated 422 million people had diabetes worldwide, which is 8.5% of the global population. 12 It is vital that relevant, human-based models are utilised for diabetes research.
 
Animal experimentation is ineffective for sepsis research: 150 cures developed for sepsis infections have been successful in mice. All of these failed, and even caused the infection to worsen in some cases when used in humans.13

2. Animal-based research hurts humans too!

Results from animal-based research are misleading when they are applied to humans, which can lead to adverse effects in human clinical trials.
 
Examples:
 
In March 2006, six human volunteers were injected with the experimental drug, TGN1412, which had previously been tested on mice, rats, rabbits and monkeys with no adverse effects.14For the human volunteers, the drug produced the opposite effect and several were left with permanent organ damage. 
 
In 2003, trials of an Alzheimer’s vaccine cured the disease in “Alzheimer’s mice.” The trial had to be stopped after the substance caused brain inflammation in humans.15
 
See many more cases where animal experimentation has gone wrong in the table below.
 

3. Misleading results from animal-based research may cause us to discard treatments that could help humans.

Examples:
 
Therapies that were nearly abandoned due to misleading results from animal-based research include Tamoxifen (one of our most effective drugs against certain types of breast cancer), which caused liver tumours in rats.16 
 
The now-highly-regarded leukaemia drug Gleevec caused severe liver toxicity in dogs;17 fortunately, the manufacturers persisted with the development of this drug because it seemed so promising in human cell culture tests. 
 
Approximately 95% of experimental drugs fail in clinical studies because we cannot accurately predict how they will behave in humans based on laboratory and animal studies.18 We can only imagine how many of these could be effective as human treatments if they weren’t tested on the wrong model first!
 

4. Time, money and other resources wasted on animal-based research could be directed into more relevant human-based tests.

The average cost to develop a new drug is $2.558 billion USD,19 and if proven effective, can take 12 years to reach human patients.20
 
Time and time again, misleading results from animal-based research have resulted in findings that aren’t useful for humans. No wonder it takes so long and costs so much to get a useful drug onto shelves!
 
Examples:
 
It took over thirty years of diabetes research using rodents before “we” discovered that the internal structure and function of the human pancreatic islet cell, which is central to the development of diabetes, is dramatically different from that in the “well-studied rodent”.21
 
One of the researchers, Per-Olof Berggren, adjunct professor at the Diabetes Research Institute and professor at the Rolf Luft Center for Diabetes Research at Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, Sweden, stated that:
 
“We can no longer rely on studies on mice and rats. It is now imperative that we focus on human islets. At the end of the day, it is the only way to understand how they function.” 22
 
AIDS/HIV research has been carried out on non-human primates for decades, yet all of approximately 90 HIV vaccines that succeeded in animals failed in humans.23
 
Cancer research using rodents has proven over the past 30 + years, to be a massive waste of time. Even the head of America’s biggest cancer institute has admitted as much. “We have cured mice of cancer for decades – and it simply didn’t work in humans.” Dr Richard Klausner, former director of the US National Cancer Institute 24
 
To help humans, we need to shift towards more relevant and accurate human-based research. Read more about these better methods HERE

5. Animal experimentation is cruel

Although there are many scientific problems with animal-based research, it is also important to point out the ethical issues involved.
 
Because it’s legal, many people believe that the animals used in animal experiments won’t feel any pain or fear. This is not true.
 
Experiments are permitted by animal ethics committees that you wouldn’t wish upon your worst enemy.
From rats being force-fed ecstasy as an attempt to measure drug addiction in humans, to live pigs being shot in the head to try and replicate blood spatter patterns in humans, the pain and fear that animals are made to endure is unjust. 
 
Non-human animals are now recognised as sentient beings in New Zealand law.25 Sentient beings deserve a life free from fear and pain.
 
Join NZAVS and help us create a better world for both humans and animals!
Become a NZAVS Animal Advocate HERE
 
 
 

 

Other Dangerous drugs

With 9/10 experimental drugs failing in humans that have worked in animals, it is no surprise that there are many examples where humans have had unexpected responses to drugs due to misleading animal experiments.  

Here is a list of cases where animal experiments have failed to predict the human response (This is not a complete list, it is just a few of the many examples):

 

Drug

Purpose

Result

Amrinone

To treat heart failure

Caused thrombocytopenia - a lack of blood cells needed for clotting in 20% of patients taking the drug on a long term basis.

Ariprazole

An antipsychotic

Caused neuroleptic malignant syndrome – fever, confusion, disorientation, muscle rigidity, profuse sweating and autonomic instability.

Atenolol

Beta blocker, treatment for high blood pressure.

Associated with 26% higher risk of stroke compared to newer drugs.

Avandia

Type 2 diabetes

Caused weight gain, bone fractures and heart disease.

Benoxaprofen

A non steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesic agent.

Potent phototoxic drug in elderly persons.

Benziodarone

A coronary vasodilator

Acute uric acid build up in the kidneys.

BIA 10- 2474

Pain relief and anxiety treatment

Volunteers in a Phase I clinical trial hospitalised with brain damage. One person died. January 2016.

Celebrex

Cox 2 inhibitor, arthritis painkiller

Risk of heart attack, weight gain, abdominal pain, headache, dyspepsia, diarhhoea, nausea, kidney failure, fainting, blurred vision, allergic reactions, chest pain, ringing in ears, intestinal bleeding etc

Cerivastatin

Treatment for high blood chloresterol,

Muscle toxicity

Cisapride

Gastrointestinal stimulant

Disorders of heart rhythm, headaches, diarhhoea, constipation, nausea and abdominal pain.

Clioquinol

Ingredient in anti-diarrhoea drugs

At least 10,000 people, and possibly up to 30,000, fell victim to SMON (subacute myelo-optic neuropatthy), a disease that causes numbness, weakness in the legs, paralysis, eye problems including blindness, all due to nerve damage.

Clozapine

Anti psychotic

Seizures, shaking hands, fainting, loss of bladder control, confusion, changes in vision, fever, severe muscle stiffness, sweating, changes in behaviour, sore throat, unusual bleeding or bruising, loss of appetite, upset stomach, yellowing of skin or eyes, flu like symptoms, lack of energy.

Dexfenfluramine

Weight loss

Cardiovascular side effects

Diethylstillbestrol (DES)

A synthetic estrogen prescribed to pregnant women to prevent miscarriage

Increased spontaneous abortions, premature births and neonatal deaths. Increased risk of vaginal cancer in daughters and granddaughters of users.

Domperidone

Treat symptoms of stomach disorders

Headaches, dizziness, dry mouth, nervousness, flushing, irritability, hot flushes, trouble sleeping, leg cramps, chest pain, slow/fast heart beat, discharge from breasts, swelling of feet and ankles, difficulty urinating, menstrual changes, sexual difficulties.

Droperidol

Antiemetic & anti psychotic

Spasms of the face, disorders of heart rhythm.

Enbrel

Treat rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

Hypersensitivity reaction, sepsis, tuberculosis, reactivation of hepatitis B, malignancy, haematological reactions, autoimmunity, seizures and heart failure

Enzyme-inducing antiepileptic medicines

Epilepsy

Reduced bone mineral density and subsequent increased risk of fractures.

Eraldin

Treatment for heart conditions

Found to cause serious eye damage, including blindness. 23 deaths. Over a 1000 patients received compensation for the damage it caused.

Exanta

Blood thinner to treat thrombosis

Causes long term liver damage.

Ezetimibe

Reduces the amount of cholesterol and fatty substances in the blood.

Rapid onset of depression, hives, rashes, difficulty breathing or swallowing, hoarseness, swelling of the face, lips, ankles, throat, legs, hands eyes and tongue, upset stomach, tiredness, unusual bleeding and bruising, lack of energy, loss of appetite, chills, chest pain.

Fenfluramine

Anti obesity medication

Heart valve disease, pulmonary hypertension.

Grepafloxacin

Anti biotic

Caused disorders of heart rhythm

Humira

Rheumatoid arthritis treatment

Hypersensitivity reaction, sepsis, severe reactions occurred with patients who had tuberculosis or hep B or lupus, can cause swelling, shortness of breath, chills, flu symptoms, weight loss, fever, patchy skin, chest pain, coughing up blood, easy bruising, pale skin, unusual weakness.

Ibufenac

Non steroidal Anti inflammatory (Ibuprofen)

Caused severe liver damage.

Kava kava

Herbal remedy for stress and anxiety

Liver toxicity

Leflunomide

Anti inflammatory disease modifying anti rheumatic

Hepatotoxicity, nausea, diarrhea, hair loss, flu like symptoms, mild dizziness, chest pain, back pain, sore mouth, muscle cramping, numbness / tingling sensations.

Levacetylmethadol

Treatment for opium addiction

Withdrawn, caused severe cardiac disorders.

Methandrostenolone

Anabolic Steroid

Enlargement of male breasts, water retention, oily skin, acne, unwanted body hair, aggression, male pattern baldness, liver damage.

Metipranolol

Treatment of Glaucoma

Severe eye irritation or inflammation, slow heart beat or chest pain.

Mibefradil

Treatment of high blood pressure

Abdominal pain, belching, heartburn, stomach discomfort, flushing, headache, nausea, vomiting, pounding heart, stuffy nose, dizziness, lightheadedness, swelling legs, unusual tiredness.

Mumps vaccine

Prevention of mumps

Allergic reactions – difficulty in breathing or swallowing, hives, itching, reddening of skin, swelling of eyes, face or inside of nose, unusual tiredness or weakness. Other side effects include bruising or purple spots on skin, confusion, fever, headache, irritability, pain, tenderness, swelling of testicles, stiffneck and vomiting.

Naftidrofuryl oxalate injection

Treatment for disorder of blood flow to the brain

Cardio toxicity, rash, inflammation of liver, nausea, stomach pain.

Nomifensine

Anti depressant

Linked to kidney failure, anemia and death

Odanacatib

Treatment for osteoporosis 

Withdrawn from development in September 2016 due to high risk of atrial fibrillation and stroke. 

Olanzapine

Anti psychotic

Confusion, sluggishness, fever, disorientation, muscle rigidity, spasms, profuse sweating, autonomic instability, swelling of face, breathing problems, uncontrollable chewing and arm and leg movements, loss of memory, nervousness.

Opren

Arthritis drug.

Found to be highly toxic in humans, with 3,500 reports of harmful effects including 61 British deaths, mainly through liver damage in the elderly.

Osmosin

Non steroidal anti inflammatory

Stomach ulceration and death

Pacritinib

Treatment for rare blood cancer called myelofibrosis 

Trials halted in February 2016 as a number of volunteers taking part died from brain haemorrhages or heart failure. 

Paroxetine

Anti depressant and anxiety treatment

Suicidal ideation, serotonin syndrome, bipolar mania or hypomania, schizophrenia, jaw / neck and back muscle spasms, fever, chills, sore throat and flu like symptoms, jaundice, GI bleeding, fetal defects, withdrawal syndrome, headache, weight loss, nausea, dry mouth, sweating, drowsiness, insomnia, constipation or diarrhea, erectile dysfunction, tremor, vertigo, dizziness.

Pemoline

ADHD, and narcolepsy

Liver toxicity

phenylbutazone and oxyphenbutazone

Non steroidal anti inflammatory

Gastrointestinal ulcers, kidney damage, oral lesions, internal heamorrhage, decreased appetite, excessive thirst, suppression of white blood cell production, aplastic aenemia.

Prenylamine

Angina pectoris

Depletes myocardial catecholamine stores

Propanidid

Short acting general anaesthetic

Withdrawn due to causing anaphylactic reactions

Pulmonary surfactant

To increase pulmonary compliance

Increased mortality.

Risperdal

Antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia and symptoms of bipolar disorder (manic depression). Also used in autistic children to treat symptoms of irritability.

Increased risk of strokes and death in elderly dementia patients, seizures, major weight gain, onset of diabetes and potentially fatal high blood sugar.

Ritalin and Dexamphetamine

Treatment of ADHD, especially in children.

Children as young as 5 suffered strokes, heart attacks, hallucinations and convulsions, shortness of breath, heart palpitations, hair loss, muscle spasms, severe abdominal pain, tremors, insomnia, severe weight loss, depression and paranoia.

Sertindole

Anti psychotic

Cardiac arrhythmias, also caused some deaths

Simvastatin

Control hypercholesterolemia & prevent cardio vascular disease

17 % patients died between December 2005 and February 2006. Common side effects include, diarrhea, abdominal pain, indigestion, weakness. Less common – joint pain, memory loss and muscle cramps

Suprofen

Non steroidal anti inflammatory.

Caused kidney toxicity, withdrawn from the market.

Temafloxacin

Anti biotics

Death, low blood sugar, hemolytic anemia, other blood cell abnormalities, kidney dysfunction resulting in renal dialysis, liver dysfunction, allergic reactions causing life threatening respiratory distress.

Terodiline

Treatment of urinary incontinence

Cardiac arrhythmias

Thalidomide

A sedative and to treat morning sickness in pregnant women.

Found to cause damage to the human foetus, resulting in 10,000 children born crippled and deformed with missing limbs.

TGN1412

Treatment of inflammatory conditions (especially rheumatism) and leukemia

Volunteers in a clinical trial suffered poor breathing, heavy swelling of neck and head, organ failure

Tolcapone

Treatment of parkinsons disease

Life threatening liver disease

Torcetrapib

Treatment of hypercholesterolemia

Up to 82 known deaths reported worldwide.

Trasylol

Used to prevent blood loss during surgery

Kidney problems, heart attacks and strokes

Triazolam

Sedative

Neuropsychiatric

Troglitazone

Diabetes

Causes liver damage, resulted in 28 deaths and 7 liver transplants.

Trovan

Anti biotic

Acute liver failures and deaths.

Vioxx

Painkiller for rheumatoid and osteoarthritis

Increased risk of cardiovascular events.

Voltaren

Non steroidal Anti inflammatory

Life threatening heart or circulation problems, including heart attack or stroke.

Zelmac

Treatment for irritable bowel syndrome

Studies have shown a link to heart attacks and strokes.

Zelmid

Anti depressant

Linked to Guillain Barre syndrome, liver damage

Zolpidem

Short term treatment of insomnia

Possible death or coma from overdose, anterograde amnesia, hallucinations, delusions, ataxia and poor motor coordination, increased appetite, decreased libido, altered thought patterns, extroversion.

Zomax

Arthritis treatment & anti inflammatory drug to treat post operative pain

Deaths and severe allergic reactions.

Table provided by our friends at Humane Research Australia 

 

You can also read other good examples in the Animal Aid, Scientific Case Against the use of Animals in Biomedical Research

 


1 Gregory, Public Affairs Quarterly, 2000, p. 166.
2 Harare et al., American Journal of Medical Sciences, 1943, p. 642; Schneierson and Perlman, Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 1956, p. 229.
3 Florey, Conquest, 1953.
4 Greek, 2014 http://www.forlifeonearth.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/The-Discovery-and-Development-of-Penicillin-Ray-Greek-MD.pdf .
5 United States Food and Drug Administration, https://www.fda.gov/drugs/resourcesforyou/consumers/ucm143475.htm
6 Gregory, Public Affairs Quarterly, 2000, p. 165. 
7 Akhtar, Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare and Ethics, 2015, p. 412.
8 Gregory, Public Affairs Quarterly, 2000, p. 165-6.
9 Curry, Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 2003, p. 69.
10 Akhtar, Pippin and Sandusky, Alternatives to Laboratory Animals, 2009, p. 55.
11 Chandrasekera and Pippin, Alternatives to Animal Experimentation, 2013, pp. 157-8.
12 World Health Organization, 2016, http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/204871/1/9789241565257_eng.pdf .
13 Seok et al., 2013, p. 3511.
14 Akhtar, Animals and Public Health, 2012, p. 147-148
15 Allen, Slate, 2006.
16 Carthew et al., Cancer Research, 1995, p. 544.
17 Cohen, Clinical Cancer Research, 2002, p. 936.
18 Arrowsmith, Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 2012, pp. 17-18. 
19 Tufts Centre for the Study of Drug Development,  http://csdd.tufts.edu/news/complete_story/tufts_csdd_rd_cost_study_now_published .
20 California Biomedical Research Association, https://www.ca-biomed.org/pdf/media-kit/fact-sheets/CBRADrugDevelop.pdf .
21 Diabetes Research Institute Foundation, http://www.diabetesresearch.org/page.aspx?pid=409 ; Carbrera et al., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2006, p. 2334.
22 Rodriguez, Until Every Animal is Free, 2015.
23 Bailey, Alternatives to Laboratory Animals, 2008, 381–428.
24 Cimons, Gentlin and Maugh, Los Angeles Times, 6 May 1998.
25 New Zealand Government, Animal Welfare Amendment Act (No. 2) 2015, Part 1, Section 4, http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2015/0049/latest/whole.html?search=sw_096be8ed813b10c7_sentient_25_se&p=1#DLM6165701 .
 

Comments (0)


Add a Comment





Allowed tags: <b><i><br>Add a new comment:



RELATED ARTICLES

WHAT CAN YOU DO TO HELP?

JOIN US

Sign up to our newsletter and keep up with events and campaigns.

DONATE

Donate to us to help us have the resources to do what we do.