Each year, hundreds of thousands of animals in New Zealand, and an estimated 115.3 million worldwide, are used in the name of science.
Animals are subject to cruel and archaic experiments that are permitted under NZ law because of the huge misconception that animal-based research and testing can protect and save human lives.
We do not have to choose between inflicting pain and suffering on animals and finding medical treatments and cures for people. Instead, non-harmful and human-relevant research methods can be used to create accurate and far more relevant results! An end to animal experimentation would be a win for animals, people and science.
The number of animals used in NZ:
Approximately 300,000 animals are used for research, testing and teaching (RTT) in NZ every year.
The number of animals used for research testing and teaching purposes in NZ from 1999 — 2018:
You can view the annual animal usage statistics for the past seven years here:
Find out more here.
How animals are used:
Animals are used as models in biological and medical research to study human disease, injury, development, psychology, and anatomy and physiology. They are also used in veterinary research, basic biological research, animal husbandry research, environmental management research and research into species conservation.
Animals are subject to tests to try and assess the safety, efficacy or quality of products, chemicals and other substances.
Note: Although testing cosmetics on animals in NZ is now prohibited, NZ companies can still pay for these tests to be conducted outside of NZ.
Animals are used in dissections, demonstrations and other teaching exercises in schools, universities and other tertiary institutes.
Other scientific uses of animals in NZ include the use of animals for the production of biological agents and in the development of alternatives.
The main use of animals in NZ:
People often think that the main use of animals in science is for product safety testing and biomedical research (developing new drugs and medicines). But in NZ this is not the case. The biggest proportion of animals used for research, testing and teaching in NZ are used to try and enhance animal agriculture.
Our position on animal use in science:
In NZ animals manipulated for claimed scientific purposes are categorised by the government into three groups — research, testing and teaching (RTT).
While we are opposed to most RTT methods involving animals, not all cases involve animal experimentation or are harmful therefore, we are not opposed to 100% of RTT involving animals. Our position can vary between studies and is dependent on the scientific and ethical factors involved.
For example, using a non-harmful tag and release research method on Kiwis for conservation purposes is considered RTT using animals in NZ yet we aren't opposed to this research on either scientific or ethical grounds.
One of the easiest ways to illustrate the wide-ranging use of animals for claimed scientific purposes is by looking at Dr Ray Greeks nine uses of animals in science.
Types of animals used:
A wide variety of animals are used for research, testing and teaching purposes in NZ including:
- Guinea pigs
- Marine mammals
- Other species
Other species include but are not limited to:
African pouched rats, bats, ferrets, stoats, hedgehogs, llamas, alpacas, chinchillas, chimpanzees, elephants, giraffes, wallabies and spider monkeys.
Animals that can’t be used:
According to the Animal Welfare Act, 1999, gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos, and orangutans (non-human hominids) can’t be used for research, testing or teaching purposes in NZ, unless special requirements are met.
The most commonly used animals:
Mice, sheep and cows have all been included in the most commonly used animals for research, testing and teaching purposes in NZ since 1989.
The top five most used animals for research, testing and teaching purposes in NZ:
Where animals are used:
During the most recent year that there is data available for (2018), 146 different institutions reported using animals for research, testing or teaching purposes.
Any person or organisation using animals for research, testing and teaching purposes must follow an approved code of ethical conduct, which sets out the policies and procedures that must be followed by the organisation and its animal ethics committee.
We can, therefore, use the list of code holders as an indicator of who can use animals for research, testing and teaching purposes if all relevant criteria are met.
Find out more here.
Where animals are sourced from:
Animals used in science can be sourced from the following places:
- Breeding units: An institutional unit dedicated to breeding animals for manipulation.
- Commercial sources: Obtained from a commercial supplier of animals.
- Farms: Farm animals obtained from a farm; the farm may be a commercial unit or belong to the institution. Animals such as a pet which happens to live on a farm or wild animals caught on farmland should not be included in this category.
- Born during project: Intended for offspring whose birth is part of the project, e.g. lambing or hatching studies.
- Captured: Captured in the wild.
- Imported: Imported into New Zealand from an overseas source.
- Public sources: Public donations, animals obtained from a pound, a pet shop or other public sources. This includes privately owned pets which are ‘borrowed’ for the duration of the exercise (e.g. veterinary nurse training).
The above definitions were sourced from the Ministry for Primary Industries.
- Find out how we know how many animals are used for research, testing and teaching purposes in NZ.
- Learn more about animals sourced from breeding units.
- Learn about the alternatives and replacement methods that can be used instead of animals.
- Read about why animal testing is both ethically and scientifically flawed.
- Find out how you can help end animal experimentation.