End the Forced Swim Test

End the Forced Swim Test

What is the Forced Swim Test?

The Forced Swim Test is an animal test that involves forcing small animals such as rats or mice to swim in an inescapable beaker of water until they ‘give up’ and float. Some researchers use the test as a misguided attempt to mimic depression or hopelessness in humans. 

Why the Forced Swim Test is invalid

The Forced Swim Test is fundamentally flawed, and evidence shows that floating is actually a learned and adaptive behaviour, one that saves energy and is beneficial for survival. Individual animals who are quicker to float will save energy and are less likely to sink, meaning that animals who more rapidly pick up on this reality, and spend less time struggling, are merely learning this adaptive behaviour quicker. 

The Forced Swim Test doesn’t predict how humans will respond to drugs and has no relevance to human depression. The causes of depression are not adequately understood yet - many different factors could contribute to symptoms of depression in humans. Trying to replicate a complex human condition by dropping mice or rats into inescapable beakers of water is questionable, to say the least!

Scientists themselves are speaking out against the Forced Swim Test due to its lack of merit.

PETA scientists have found that in 30 years (from 1989 to 2018), experimenters gave animals 47 different test drug compounds before subjecting them to the Forced Swim Test. 36 of them "showed promise" based on the invalid interpretation of the test. But exactly zero of those are now on the market to treat human depression. 

An analysis conducted with data from four major pharmaceutical companies found that the Forced Swim Test was less predictive than chance at determining if a compound would have antidepressant efficacy in humans.

A groundbreaking study published in the leading scientific journal Nature highlights the need to end the use of mice in cruel depression experiments. In this study, 64 researchers analyzed the brains of mice and humans and found substantial species differences in types of brain cells and the ways they produce proteins critical to neuropsychiatric function. The authors noted numerous “failures in the use of [the] mouse for preclinical studies” because of “so many [species] differences in the cellular patterning of genes.” Find out more here

Read more about the invalidity of this test here. 

The above cartoon was created by artist Sharon Murdoch and was published by The Dominion Post.

 

Why the Forced Swim Test is being used

In the 1950s, it was thought that the longer an animal in water struggled before ‘giving up’ and floating, the less depressed that animal was. This supposedly showed that the antidepressant had worked and contributed to making the Forced Swim Test become a routine part of testing experimental treatments.

But we’ve learned a lot in the past 60 years – including that the Forced Swim Test is not a valid way to measure if an antidepressant works. In fact, the evidence now shows that the behaviour of the animal in the Forced Swim Test represents a survival strategy rather than a state of ‘depression.’

 

Where the Forced Swim Test has been used in NZ

Only two NZ universities have used the Forced Swim Test in the past five years, the Victoria University of Wellington and the University of Otago. Over 16,000 people have asked Victoria University to ban the Forced Swim Test yet they are refusing to make this positive change. Take action and demand change here

 

Pointless suffering for animals that also harms people

More than 95% of drugs that appear to work in animal experiments fail to lead to drugs or therapies for humans.[1]This means that there is a high probability that antidepressants thought to be of potential use for humans will subsequently be abandoned based on the misleading results of the Forced Swim Test.

Depression is a serious condition that affects many Kiwis. Between 50-80% of New Zealanders will experience mental ill-health including depression or addiction challenges at some point in their lives.[2] Therefore finding effective treatments is paramount. Our best chance of finding these treatments is by using human-relevant research methods that produce valid results.

The Forced Swim Test highlights just how ridiculous the claim is that animal models can predict the human response and go on to save human lives. In the same way mice in cylinders of water with no way of escape, don't accurately model human depression, animals used in cancer, stroke, diabetes research and as a model for any other human illness, is a complete waste of time and resources.
 

Tests that could be used instead 

There are already many reliable methods to test drugs meant for humans without using animals. These include computer modelling of human systems and drug repurposing programmes. According to the Citizens for Alternatives to Animal Research and Experimentation (CAARE) other reliable methods include functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) which has been used to predict which patients will respond best to antidepressant treatment,  diffusion tensor imaging and examining brain tissue from deceased donors to identify genes involved in depression and other psychiatric illnesses.

In addition to these humane and scientifically valid methods, more time and resources should be spent on developing additional effective tests. Read more here.

 

The wastage of time, money and other resources

The annual cost of serious mental illness, in New Zealand, is an estimated $12 billion,[3]which highlights the need for human-relevant research to be prioritised.

Research funding is finite. Due to its lack of translational value to humans, each instance in which time or money is spent on research involving the Forced Swim Test is a waste of these valuable resources that could be better allocated elsewhere: towards human-relevant research methods and improving mental health care programmes already in place.

 

Industry rejects the Forced Swim Test

In December 2018, after talks with PETA, pharmaceutical giant AbbVie committed to not funding or conducting Forced Swim Tests. Pharmaceutical companies Johnson & Johnson (March 2019), DSM Nutritional Products (April 2019), NutriFusion LLC (May 2019),  Astraea Therapeutics and Roche Pharma (June 2019) Boehringer Ingelheim (July 2019), AstraZeneca and Novo Nordisk A/S (August 2019)  Sage Therapeutics (October 2019), Pfizer (November 2019), Bayer (December 2019) and Bristol-Myers Squibb (January 2020) have also committed to not use or fund this test in the future. 

Johnson & Johnson is the world’s largest pharmaceutical company, Roche is the second-largest, Pfizer is the third-largest and Bayer if the fifth largest pharmaceutical company in the world. This means that four of the top five pharmaceutical companies worldwide (in terms of revenue), and also ten of the top 20, have committed to no longer use the Forced Swim Test. 

This shows that even the pharmaceutical industry is recognising this test as outdated and irrelevant. Now let's make sure NZ keep up with this global shift! 

 

Public support for a ban 

  • Students from over a dozen clubs (representing over 1500 students) at Victoria University, including the Psychology Club, have signed a letter to the Vice-Chancellor and members of the University’s Animal Ethics Committee urging the institute to end use of the Forced Swim Test. 
  • In addition, over 16,000 people have sent an email to the Vice-Chancellor of Victoria University and members of the Victoria University Animal Ethics Committee asking that they end the use of the Forced Swim Test.
  • Over 25,000 people signed the NZAVS and SAFE petition against the Forced Swim Test.
  • Hundreds of people (including psychologists, researchers, mental health workers, counsellors, doctors, nurses, veterinarians and vet nurses) have provided a personal statement to support our call for a ban on the Forced Swim Test. Read these here.
  • A public poll conducted by Horizon in October 2019 indicated that this call for a ban on the Forced Swim Test in New Zealand is supported by a majority of Kiwis, with only 14% of New Zealanders supporting the continued use of the test. 
  • The Body Shop and LUSH both support an end to the Forced Swim Test. 

 

More positive news

Leading research institute, King’s College London has officially become the first known university to ban the Forced Swim Test after talks with PETA UK. It's only a matter of time before other tertiary institutes follow suit! Will Victoria University of Wellington be next? We have to keep the pressure on and encourage them to make the progressive change and come in at 2nd place! Take action here

 

Noteworthy articles recently published 

 


What we are doing

NZAVS and SAFE have joined forces to ask the NZ Government to not only ban the Forced Swim Test in NZ but also to conduct a full review and evaluation on the validity of animal tests used for psychological tests in NZ. To help the many people suffering from addiction and depression, researchers should be looking at human-relevant studies, not torturing and nearly drowning mice and rats. 

 

Our petition to ban the Forced Swim Test in NZ is now with the Economic Development, Science and Innovation Committee. We have written a formal submission (read here) and we have now been invited to give an oral submission on our petition at Parliament on the 20th February 2020. We are busy doing a lot of other work towards ending this cruel animal test (including further actions to encourage Victoria University to ban the Forced Swim Test) and we look forward to updating you soon! 

 

How you can help

  1. Send a message to the Labour Party asking them to adopt a policy to ban the Forced Swim Test.
  2. Ask Victoria University to ban the Forced Swim Test. 
  3. Donate to this cause and help fuel powerful campaigns. 
  4. Send us a photo of yourself with a companion animal and a homemade sign with the text "Ban the Forced Swim Test NZ." You can also share this image on social media and tag the Labour Party (@NZLabourParty). Email images to nzavs@nzavs.org.nz so that we can share your photos too!

 

Read more about the Forced Swim Test and why it needs to be outlawed in NZ here and find related news here


[1] National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences. (2019). About New Therapeutic Uses. Retrieved from https://ncats.nih.gov/ntu/about

[2] Paterson, R., Durie, M., Disley, B., Rangihuna, D., Tiatia-Seath, J., & Tualamali'i, J. He Ara Oranga: Report of the Government Inquiry into Mental Health and Addiction, 2018. The Government Inquiry into Mental Health and Addiction. Wellington, New Zealand, 219.

[3] Paterson, R., Durie, M., Disley, B., Rangihuna, D., Tiatia-Seath, J., & Tualamali'i, J. He Ara Oranga: Report of the Government Inquiry into Mental Health and Addiction, 2018. The Government Inquiry into Mental Health and Addiction. Wellington, New Zealand, 219.

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Petition Closed!

Over 25,000 people signed the petition asking for the NZ government to not only ban the Forced Swim Test in NZ but to also conduct a full review and evaluation on the validity of animal-based psychological tests in NZ. This was handed into Parliament on World Animal Day (4th October 2019). 

Follow the progress of the petition and find the latest campaign updates here.

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